Kerala kaumudi astrology
This change in periodicity also coincided with an abbreviation of its name to the present Deepika. The Malayala manorama started publication from Kottayam in , initially as a weekly.
The paper was floated by a joint stock company, perhaps for the first time in India. Its first editor was Kandathil Varghese Mappilai who brought with him the rich experience of his previous association with the Keralamitram of Cochin.
In the beginning, the weekly was predominantly literary. Its transition to a newspaper of general interest followed quickly. Its rise to a formidable institution with weighty contributions to the social, economic, political and cultural life of Kerala was meteoric. The paper was converted into a daily in In many instances the Malayala manorama actually gave the lead to mass movements of the period.
History of Media in Kerala
In the wake of the political movement swept Travancore with the fury of a hurricane, the authorities were perturbed at the growing influence of the Malayala manorama. In a dramatic move the Government confiscated the paper in September The editor was sent to jail. The resurrection of the daily phenomenal in the sense that with a short period both soared to lofty heights in popularity, circulation and repute.
A near namesake, the Manorama, was floated in from Kozhikode under the auspices of the Kerala Mahajana Sabha. This fortnightly was a self-styled vehicle of reforms in the socio-political field and had the backing of members of the Zamorins, family and other prominent personalities. Leading writers of the day contributed to the columns of the fortnightly which maintained a high literary standard.
After undergoing many vicissitudes involving change of ownership and editors the Manorama finally folded in under the impact of newsprint shortage. But this decade, nevertheless, accounted for a memorable crop of literary magazines. One was the Sujananandini started in from Kollam. Kandathil Varghese Mappilai and others joined hands to launch the Bhashaposhin i in as the official organ of the Bhashaposhini Sabha.
The same year the publication of Saraswathi from Tellicherry under the able editorship of Moorkoth Kumaran. Perhaps the one event of the pre period that deeply stirred the feelings of the people of Kerala and roused their political consciousness was the deportation of K. Ramakrishna Pillai, editor of the Swadeshabhimani published from Thiruvananthapuram. Ramakrishna Pillai was inducted as its editor of a number of other publications, including the Keraladarpanam , the Malayali, the Keralan , the Sarada and the Vidyarthi and had already made a mark as a brilliant columnist and literary critic.
Within a few months Ramakrishna Pillai acquired ownership of the press and shifted his base of operations to Thiruvananthapuram. He drew his powerful pen to expose the true nature of palace politics and the corruption and favouritism rampant in the corridors of power. Ramakrishna Pillai was singularly devoid of the craze for power, position or wealth.
In order to buttress his attacks on the corrupt ramparts of power, he got himself elected to the Travancore Assembly from Neyyattinkara. The Dewan, P. Rajagopalachari, sensed the inherent danger in having this opponent at such close quarters.
His ingenious mind contrived a royal proclamation stipulating that legislators should permanently reside in their constituencies. Ramakrishna Pillai, resident at Thiruvananthapuram, was unseated on this technical count. The attacks on the Dewan and the regime thenceforth become move devastating.
Kurmi caste famous person
The Swadeshabhimani ran a series of articles which further precipitated matters. The Dewan reversed his tactics, alternatively threatening and cajoling the dauntless editor, but of no avail. A royal proclamation was issued on September 26, , deporting Ramakrishna Pillai from Travancore and confiscating his press and paper-a martyrdom for a righteous journalist in the service of his countrymen.
The educated and politically conscious section of the people were against at this high-handed and undemocratic measure. The deported editor selected Kunnamkulam in Cochin State as the launching pad for his next journalistic venture. This was the Atmaposhini. The Swadeshabhiman i edited this organ for two years till Incidentally, Ramakrishna Pillai was the author of a biography on Karl Marx, the first one to appear in any Indian language, and was hence a pioneer Indian to be inspired by socialist consciousness. He also authored a book on journalism, the first of its kind in Malayalam.
The Swadeshabhimani died in exile at Kannur in The appearance of the Mitavadi from Tellicherry in marks the next important milestone in the history of the press in Kerala. Moorkoth Kumran, who had already tried his hand successfully at other journalistic ventures, occupied the editorial chair. The Mitavadi gained in stature within a short period as a formidable press organ in the Malabar area.
Literature and current affairs were its main forte. In , C. Krishnan acquired ownership of the paper and started publishing it as a magazine from Kozhikode. The Mitavadi was in the fore-front of the movement for social reforms and the uplift of the weaker sections of society. But in its approach to the national struggle for independence the magazine adopted an off-beat posture, aligning itself with the British and opposing the national movement.
M. Krishnan Nair (author)
In the treatment of news the magazine showed a keen awareness of the relevant and the indispensable. The Mitavadi actually published a daily news sheet featuring the latest news from the war front during the first world war. The curtains were finally rung down on this memorable publication on the eve of the second world war. The origins of the Kerala Kaumudi , one among the leading newspapers of present day Kerala, can be traced back to Its founder C. Kunhuraman was a multi-faceted personality-a poet, a brilliant prose writer, historian, journalist, politician, all combined together.
So boundless was his energy and so all-encompassing his ability that even while editing the Kerala Kaumudi he contributed leaders to other press organs. The paper initially started publication from Mayyanad. Later, it was shifted to Kollam and then to Thiruvananthapuram. It was converted into a full-fledged daily in Madhavan who rose to prominence as general secretary of the S. With the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi to a position of front-rank leadership of the Congress, political activity in Kerala felt a new spur. This was the period when the national movement had become more broad-based with the involvement of the masses.
Madhavan was drawn into the vortex of the movement and soon became an important leader of the Congress. Through the columns of the Desabhiman i he waged a relentless war against injustice, inequality and untouchability and for the cause of independence. The apogee of his reputation and influence as a journalist came with the famous satyagraha at the Vaikom temple.
Ayyappan was yet another social reformer who wielded a powerful pen and commanded a powerful vehicle of expression. This was the Sahodaran published from Cherayi in Ayyappan encouraged rationalist thought and the socialist doctrine. In the movement for responsible government, for temple entry and for inter-caste marriage the Sahodaran was always in the fore-front.
This periodical, which made substantial contribution to the renaissance of Kerala, ceased publication in Ayyappan took keen interest in the welfare of the workings classes. Through his writings he encouraged the building up of labour movements. In fact, in , he launched a publication, the Velakkaran, modeled along the British Daily Worker and devoted in the main to the labour movement. He was also associated with two other publications-the Yuktivadi and the Stree. As a regular columnist of the Mitavadi a nd the Kerala Kaumudi his writings helped to create and mould enlightened public opinion.
The Samadarshi which commenced publication from Thiruvananthapuram in was a powerful and popular vehicle of public opinion. Balakrishna Pillai joined the paper in as editor. He revetted his attention on the corrupt and high-handed bureaucracy of Travancore. The devastating criticism in the Samadarshi went down well with the reading public who clamoured for more. But the authorities were displeased and the owner of the paper was faced with difficulties. The management of the paper was not prepared to invite official displeasure and Balakrishna Pillai had to resign in The Samadarshi went on, taking care not to rub the authorities on the wrong side and in the wake of a fast dropping circulation folded in the late forties.
In the series of infamous moves plotted by the government of Travancore against the institution of a free press the newspaper regulation of deserves special mention as much for its stringency as for the opposition it generated among the reading public.
The regulation was promulgated by Dewan Watts. The intense activity in the journalistic field, sparked off in the wake of nationalistic fervour, political consciousness and the growing clamour for responsible government, was inexorably driving the princely regime on the defensive. It was high time the press was gagged and muzzled, so the Dewan reasoned. The regulation was draconian measure requiring newspapers to take out licenses and deposit a security as token of their bonafides. Criticism of any member of the Travancore royal family, the Travancore government or the British king emperor would entail forfeiture of the security and cancellation of the licence.
A fresh licence would be issued at the discretion of the authorities, but would require a further substantial sum as security. A second cancellation of the licence would be fatal to the publication. Possession of copies of publications whose licences were suspended was a punishable offence. Balakrishana Pillai, who had earlier been eased out of editorial responsibility of the Samadarshi, had in the meanwhile launched a new periodical entitled Prabhodakan.
Within six month of its appearance, this periodical was banned by the government of Travancore. Balakrishna Pillai now started the Kesari , later to become famous in the annuals of Malayalam journalism. Scathing criticism of the authorities was taken up with an added zeal in the columns of the new publication. With their misdeeds exposed to public gaze the Dewan and his cohorts were put in a tight corner.
The newspaper regulations of took shape against this backdrop. Public reaction was instantaneous. A huge public meeting was organized at Thiruvnanthapuram.